1. The 27th annual State of the Climate report has confirmed that 2016 topped 2015 as the warmest year in 137 years of record keeping. The report found that most indicators of climate change continued to follow trends of a warming world, and several, including land and ocean temperatures, sea level and greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere broke records set just one year prior. This annual check-up for the planet, led by researchers from NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information, is based on contributions from more than 450 scientists from nearly 60 countries. Greenhouse gases were the highest on record. The 2016 average global CO2 concentration was 402.9 parts per million (ppm), an increase of 3.5 ppm compared with 2015 and the largest annual increase observed in the 58-year record. Global surface temperature was the highest on record. The 2016 combined global land and ocean surface temperature was record-high for a third consecutive year, according to four global analyses. The increase in temperature ranged from 0.45°–0.56°C above the 1981-2010 average. Average sea surface temperature was the highest on record. According to four independent datasets analyzed, the record-breaking globally averaged sea surface temperature for 2016 was 0.36–0.41 degrees C higher than the 1981–2010 average and surpassed the previous mark set in 2015 by 01–0.03 degrees C. Global upper-ocean heat content neared record high. Heat in the uppermost layer of the ocean, the top 2,300 feet (700 meters), saw a slight drop compared to the record high set in 2015. The findings are consistent with a continuing trend of warming oceans. Global sea level was the highest on record. The global average sea level rose to a new record high in 2016, and was about 3.25 inches (82 mm) higher than that observed in 1993, when satellite record-keeping for sea level began. Arctic sea ice coverage was at or near record low. The maximum Arctic sea ice extent (coverage) reached in March 2016 tied last year as the smallest in the 37-year satellite data record, while the minimum sea ice extent in September tied 2007 as the second lowest on record. Tropical cyclones were above-average overall. There were 93 named tropical cyclones across all ocean basins in 2016, above the 1981-2010 average of 82 storms.

  2. On 13 September 2015 the International Council for Science (ICSU), the International Social Science Council (ISSC) and International Council for Philosophy and Human Sciences (CIPSH) jointly announced today that 2016 would be the International Year of Global Understanding (IYGU). The aim of IYGU is to promote better understanding of how the local impacts the global in order to foster smart policies to tackle critical global challenges such as climate change, food security and migration.

  3. Microbe of the Year 2016 is the Streptomyces bacteria.

  4. Bird of the Year 2016 is the the European goldfinch or goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis).

  5. Cave Animal of the Year 2016 is the Amilenus aurantiacus.

  6. Poisonous plant of the year 2016 is the California poppy (Eschscholzia californica).

  7. Water Plant of the Year 2016 is the River water-crowfoot (Ranunculus fluitans).

  8. Wild bee of the Year 2016 is the Shrill carder bee (Bombus sylvarum).

  9. Tree of the Year 2016 is the Small Leaved Lime or Littleleaf linden (Tilia cordata).

  10. Coast Forest Usedom in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was chosen as Forest of the Year 2016.

  11. Spider of the Year 2016 is the Cyclosa conica.

  12. The Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) was nominated to the Amphibian of the Year 2016 by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Herpetologie und Terrarienkunde e.V. (DGHT).

  13. Butterfly of the Year 2016 is the Magpie Moth (Abraxas grossulariata).

  14. Perennial Herb of the Year 2016 is the Iris. The genus Iris has about 200 species. It takes its name from the Greek word for a rainbow, which is also the name for the Greek goddess of the rainbow, Iris.

  15. Orchid of the Year 2016 is the Summer lady's-tresses (Spiranthes aestivalis).

  16. The environmental foundation Global Nature Fund (GNF) nominates the Lake Tonle Sap in Cambodia as the "Threatened Lake of the Year 2016". On the occasion of World Day of Wetlands on 2nd February, the GNF refers here to the changes that lie ahead for the lake because of climate change and human impact. Together with the local Living Lakes partner organisation Fisheries Action Coalition Team (FACT), GNF calls for sustainable measures to preserve this important habitat.

  17. On 22 March 2016, the Global Nature Fund announced, the choice of the Lake Constance in in Germany, Switzerland and Austria as Living Lake of the Year 2016.

  18. Soil of the Year 2016 are the Gleysols.

  19. Insect of the Year 2016 is the Allacma fusca.

  20. Animal of the Year 2016 is the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus), also known as the Eurasian hamster, black-bellied hamster or common hamster.

  21. Trichomonas vaginalis is the Protozoan of the Year 2016.

  22. Domestic Animal of the Year 2016 is the Chicken.

  23. Phycologists of the Phycology Section of the German Botanical Society have selected Melosira arctica as alga of the year 2016.

  24. Laboratory Animal of the Year 2016 is the fish. Each year, millions of feeling, intelligent fish are confined, abused, and killed in cruel experiments in laboratories around the world.

  25. Very large gravel-dominated rivers have been named "Water body type of the Year 2016“.

  26. Mollusc of the Year 2016 is the Pisidium amnicum.

  27. Fish of the Year 2016 ist the Northern pike ( Esox lucius).

  28. Medicinal Plant of the Year 2016 is the Caraway (Carum carvi)

  29. The Cubeb (Piper cubeba) has been chosen for the Medicinal Herb of the Year 2016 by the NHV Theophrastus.

  30. Lichen of the Year 2016 is the Icmadophila ericetorum.

  31. Moss of the Year 2016 is the midway peat moss or Magellan's peatmoss (Sphagnum magellanicum).

  32. Flower of the Year 2016 is the Cowslip or Cowslip primrose (Primula veris).

  33. The Endangered Domestic Breed of the Year for 2016 are regional cattle breeds: the Braunvieh cattle, the Glan cattle and the German Black Pied cattle.

  34. Fungus of the Year 2016 is the Lepista personata.

  35. Dragonfly of the Year 2016 is the Lestes sponsa. It is known commonly as the emerald damselfly or common spreadwing.

  36. Cactus of the year 2016 is the Discocactus horstii.

  37. The globally averaged temperature, over land and ocean surfaces for 2015, was the highest since record keeping began in 1880.

  38. The capital of Slovenia, Ljubljana, has won the European Green Capital Award for 2016. The award was presented on 24 June 2014, by EU Environment Commissioner, Janez Potočnik, at a ceremony in Copenhagen, which holds the 2014 European Green Capital title. Ljubljana received recognition for raising environmental awareness amongst its citizens, for its sustainability strategy 'Vision 2025', its implementation of a range of urban green measures over the past decade and its impressive transportation network.

  39. The globally averaged temperature in 2016 was about 1.1°C higher than the pre-industrial period. It was approximately 0.83° Celsius above the long term average (14°C) of the WMO 1961-1990 reference period, and about 0.07°C warmer than the previous record set in 2015. WMO uses data from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies and the UK’s Met Office Hadley Centre and the University of East Anglia’s Climatic Research Unit. WMO also draws on reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and the Copernicus Climate Change Service, which use a weather forecasting system to combine many sources of data to provide a more complete picture of global temperatures, including in Polar regions.