1. Within the portfolio of the Environment Minister, an independent federal authority is set up, the Federal Environmental Agency.

  2. On 9 August 1974, the Netherlands tanker Metula ran aground on the Satellite Patch Shoal in the Straits of Magellan, Chile. Approximately 53,000 tons crude oil ran out.

  3. The conference seeks to coordinate measures for combating hunger and malnourishment. The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and a world food council are called into being.

  4. The World Food Council is set up on the recommendation of the Rome World Food Conference. It is the highest committee directing and coordinating various UN organisations in solving world hunger.

  5. Bird of the Year 1975 is the Eurasian Golden Plover (Pluvialis apricaria).

  6. Herbert Gruhl (1921 - 1993), at the time a CDU member of parliament, publishes his (sometimes controversial) book.

  7. Objective proof of the connection between the destruction of the ozone layer and the release of aerosol propellants.

  8. The Jacob Maersk loses 88,000 t oil off the Atlantic coast of Portugal.

  9. The purpose of the act is in particular 1. to maintain forests because of their usefulness and significance for the environment, extending them where necessary, and ensuring an orderly sustainable management. 2. to support forestry. 3. to balance the interests of the public good and the owners of forests.

  10. The first protest is aimed at the Soviet whaling fleet. Greenpeace members in rubber dinghies place themselves between the whales and the harpoons. Film of the protest alarms the entire world.

  11. The Council of the European Communities has adopted the Council Directive 75/442/EEC of 15 July 1975 on waste. Known as the Waste Framework Directive, the Directive establishes a framework for the management of waste across the European Community.

  12. The Association for Nature and Environment Protection Germany (BUND), subsequently Association for Environment and Nature Protection Germany (BUND) is founded by Horst Stern, Bernhard Grzimek, Herbert Gruhl and 19 other founding members.

  13. The Council of the European Communities has adopted the DIRECTIVE of 8 December 1975 concerning the quality of bathing water. Directive 76/160/EEC concerns the quality of bathing water, with the exception of water intended for therapeutic purposes and water used in swimming pools. It lays down the minimum quality criteria to be met by bathing water: the physical, chemical and microbiological parameters; the mandatory limit values and indicative values for such parameters; the minimum sampling frequency and method of analysis or inspection of such water. Member States fix the values that they apply to bathing water in accordance with the guidelines of Directive 76/160/EEC. Member States may fix more stringent values than those laid down in the Directive. Where it does not give any values for certain parameters, Member States are not obliged to fix any.

  14. Bird of the Year 1976 is the Hoopoe (Upupa epops).

  15. With its book on air quality criteria, dealing with lead, the FEA comes into serious conflict with the car lobby for the first time. However, the FEA's warnings have an effect: lead content in petrol is fixed by law and leaded normal petrol has been banned in Germany since 1988.

  16. Expeditions begin in March to prevent seal culling on the ice off Newfoundland in Canada. Activists blockade an icebreaker, others protect seals from the hunters' clubs with their own bodies. They are fined by the Canadian authorities.

  17. After several explosions on board, the Spanish ship "Urquiola" strikes a rock off the Spanish coast. 95,000 t oil pollute the bay of La Coruna.

  18. In the northern Italian town of Seveso, c. 2.5 kg dioxins (2,3,7,8 TCDD) escape from a chemicals factory producing TCP, resulting in 183 cases of chloracne, 70,000 animals needing to be destroyed, with uncertain long-term consequences (e.g. cancer).

  19. Under the act, and the subsequently decreed Heat Insulation Ordinance of 16.08.1994, energy conservation and insulation measures must be used in new buildings or installing heating or air conditioning systems.

  20. The Argo Merchant ran aground on Fishing Rip (Nantucket Shoals), 29 nautical miles southeast of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts in high winds and ten foot seas. On December 21, the ship broke apart and spilled its entire cargo of 7.7 million gallons of No. 6 fuel oil.

  21. Technical Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) has been banned in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1977. In the German Democratic Republic, however, it was still produced and applied until 1990. The main production site was the industrial area around Bitterfeld in Saxony-Anhalt. Technical HCH was banned in the EU in 1991.

  22. The "Hawaiian Patriot" loses 95,000 t oil off the coast of Honolulu.

  23. The European Community starts its second Environmental Action Programme

  24. Scientific studies by the FEA prove the dangers of fibrous asbestos dust in the environment as well. Despite early resistance, industry then halts the use of sprayed asbestos. Sprayed asbestos has been banned in Germany since 1979.

  25. Bird of the Year 1977 is the Barn Owl (Tyto alba).

  26. Robert Jungk's book attacks the use of nuclear power, strengthening its opponents.

  27. The European Community publishes its first "Report on the State of the Environment"

  28. On 22 April 1977, an oil well blowout occurred at the Ekofisk Bravo platform, due to an incorrectly installed downhole safety valve. The blowout resulted in the first major oil release in the North Sea. At an estimated rate of 1170 barrels per hour, approximately 202,380 barrels of oil escaped before the well was finally capped 7 days later on April 30th.

  29. The 30th World Health Assembly lays the foundation for a global health strategy with the "health for all" resolution (WHA 30.43). This lays out the key target that "all citizens of the world will attain by the year 2000 a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life"

  30. World Vegetarian Day was established as an annual celebration to promote the joy, compassion and life-enhancing possibilities of vegetarianism. The day was originated by the North American Vegetarian Society in 1977 and endorsed by the International Vegetarian Union in 1978. October 1st is the official date, however if necessary, individuals may schedule their event on a nearby date instead.

  31. Fertilisers may only be traded when their type is permitted by the Ordinance.

  32. Greenpeace targets the Icelandic whaling fleet, to stop it killing fin whales, whose populations have shrunk dramatically. In 3m waves, they manoeuvre their dinghies between the ships and the whales, with the result that not a single whale is harpooned.

  33. Bird of the Year 1978 is the Common Crane (Grus grus).

  34. At its third solar energy exhibition, BUND presents Germany's first solar-powered vehicle.

  35. In "Seveso is Everywhere", Egmont Koch and Fritz Vahrenholt warn of the dangers inherent in the chemicals industry.

  36. Greenpeace discovers by chance that Great Britain and other European states are dumping nuclear waste in the North Atlantic. As the British freighter "Gem" reaches the dumping site, c. 960 km from the coast of Cornwall, carrying 2,000 t nuclear waste, two dinghies take up post below the loading ramp. The barrels continue to roll out, and the protest must end, although the media are on hand to record events.

  37. The "Amoco Cadiz" spills c. 230,000 t crude oil into the Atlantic. The bay of Arcachon in France is particularly affected. Thousands of sea birds and mussel or oyster farms are destroyed and 200 km of the coastline is contaminated.

  38. "Sun Day" is celebrated every year on 3 May. The "Sun Day" was established by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) in 1978.

  39. The jury sits for the first time to award the Blue Angel eco-label. The process involves close cooperation between consumer organisations, environmental groups and business. The label becomes an important help for environmentally aware consumers. There are now many other eco-labels, and in 1998, the FEA publishes a guide to the 40 eco-labels now in use.

  40. BUND presents the first solar-powered boat on the Bodensee.