1. Invention of 2,4,5, trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. During the Vietnam War (1965-1971), it is used as a defoliant under the codename Agent Orange. It is expected that contaminated soil will need over a century to regenerate.

  2. "Little Boy", an atomic bomb with a 60 kg core of uranium 235, explodes over Hiroshima with the power of 13.5 kt of explosives. By the end of 1945, 140,000 have died as a consequence.

  3. "Fat Man", a 22 kt atomic bomb is dropped on Nagasaki, killing 70,000 immediately.

  4. The International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling aims to conserve large whale populations. It is legally binding in civil law.

  5. The Economic Commission for Europe is responsible for a great many fundamental environmental agreements, especially on air quality, water quality, industrial waste and environmental impact assessments.

  6. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development is set up in Paris as part of the Marshall Plan. It has an environment department, which deals above all with the relationship between economic activity and the environment. The OECD regularly publishes reports on the environment in OECD countries and other studies.

  7. The 1948 Donora smog was an historic air inversion wall of smog that killed 20 and sickened 7,000 people in Donora, Pennsylvania in the United States, a mill town on the Monongahela River, 24 miles southeast of Pittsburgh.