1. The Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction was held from 14 to 18 March 2015 in Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan.

  2. The 2nd illegal wildlife trade conference took place in Kasane, Botswana, on 25 March 2015. 32 countries took part in the conference, signing up to the Kasane Statement which pledged new action combatting the illegal wildlife trade. This includes a commitment to change legislation relating to financial crimes associated with wildlife crime – including money laundering – to ensure tougher penalties. These countries also promised to take action on sustainable livelihoods, giving communities the opportunity to benefit from their local resources in a way that recognises their needs while also protecting the ecosystems around them. The Kasane Statement signatories also pledged to reduce demand through co-operation with the transport industry and private sector more broadly.

  3. On 25 September 2015, the World leaders embraced a sweeping 15-year global plan of action to end poverty, reduce inequalities and protect the environment, known as the Sustainable Development Goals, at the opening of a United Nations special summit. Titled “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” and contained in document A/70/L.1, the agreement on a set of 17 goals and 169 targets would come into effect on 1 January 2016, replacing the Millennium Development Goals set in 2000.

  4. The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 was held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 12 December 2015. It was the 21st yearly session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th session of the Meeting of the Parties to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. On 12 December an historic agreement to combat climate change and unleash actions and investment towards a low carbon, resilient and sustainable future was agreed by 195 nations. The Paris Agreement for the first time brings all nations into a common cause based on their historic, current and future responsibilities. The universal agreement’s main aim is to keep a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius and to drive efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.